- Integrated Training – Comprehensive training approach that combines all the components necessary to help a client achieve optimum performance.
General Adaptation Syndrome pg. 179
- Optimal state of human movement system is one of physiologic balance or homeostasis.
- General Adaptation Syndrome – Used to describe how the kinetic chain responds and adapts to stress. For adaptations to occur, the body must be confronted with a stressor of some form that creates the need for a response.
- Three stages of response to stress: alarm reaction, adaptation phase, exhaustion phase.
Alarm Reaction Stage pg. 180
- Alarm Reaction – The initial reaction to a stressor. Activates a number of physiological and psychological protective processes within the body. During initial sessions of resistance training programs, body is forced to try and adapt to increased amounts of force on bones, joints, muscles, connective tissues, and nervous system.
- During alarm stage numerous physiologic responses occur, including increase in oxygen and blood supply as well as neural recruitment to the working muscles.
- Over time applying principle of progressive overload, body increases its ability to meet demands being placed on it.
- Delayed onset muscle soreness – Pain or discomfort often felt 24 to 72 hours after intense exercise or unaccustomed physical activity.
Adaptation phase pg. 180
- Adaptation – Body increases its functional capacity to adapt to the stressor. Human movement system will increase its capabilities to efficiently recruit muscle fibers and distribute oxygen and blood to proper areas of the body. Once adaptation has occurred, body will require increased stress or overload to produce a new response and a higher level of fitness.
Exhaustion phase pg. 180
- Prolonged stress or intolerable amounts of stress can lead to exhaustion or distress.
- Exhaustion – prolonged stress or stress that is intolerable and will produce exhaustion or distress to the system.
- When stressor is too much for any one of the physiologic systems to handle, it causes a breakdown or injury such as: Stress fractures, muscle strains, joint pain, emotional fatigue.
- Overtraining Syndrome(OTS) – “under-recovered” – excessive frequency, volume, or intensity can result in fatigue. Also caused by lack of proper rest and recovery. Can lead to host of physiological problems including recurring illness, loss of sleep, moddiness, decreased physical performance, and serious injuries.
Principle of Specificity pg. 180
- Principle of Specificity or Specific Adaptation to Imposed Demands(SAID principle) – Principle that states the body will adapt to the specific demands that are placed on it. If someone repeatedly lifts heavy weights, that person will produce higher levels of maximal strength. Conversly if a person repeatedly lifts lighter weights for many reps, that person will develop higher levels of muscular endurance.
- Training programs should reflect desired outcomes.
- Type I slow twitch fibers are smaller in diameter, slower to produce maximal tension, and more resistant to fatigue.
- Type II are larger, fast twitch, quick to produce maximal tension, fatigue more quickly than type I.
- Degree of adaptation that occurs during training is directly related to the mechanical, neuromuscular, and metabolic specificity of the training program. To effectively achieve program goals for clients, trainers need to consistently evaluate the need to manipulate the exercise routine to meet actual training goals. The body can only adapt if it has a reason to adapt.
- Mechanical Specificity – The weight and movements placed on the body. To develop muscular endurance of legs requires light weights and high repetitions when performing leg-related exercises. To develop maximal strength in the chest, heavy weights must e used during chest-related exercises.
- Neuromuscular Specificity – Refers to the speed of contraction and exercise selection. To develop higher levels of stability while pushing, chest exercises will need to be performed with controlled, unstable exercises, at slower speeds. To develop strength, exercises should be performed in more stable environments with heavier loads to place more of an emphasis on the prime movers. To develop higher levels of power, low-weight high-velocity contractions must be performed in a plyometric manner.
- Metabolic Specificity – Refers to the energy demand placed on the body. To develop endurance, training will require prolonged bouts of exercise, with minimal rest between sets. Endurance training primarily uses aerobic pathways to supply energy to the body. To develop maximal strength or power, training will require longer rest periods, so the intensity of each bout of exercise remains high. Energy will be supplied primarily via anaerobic pathways.
- Trainers should remember that a client’s training program should be designed to meet the specific demands of their daily life and health and wellness goals.
- Mechanically body burns more calories when movements are performed while standing or seated or lying position.
- From neuromuscular standpoint, body burns more calories when more muscles are being used for longer periods in controlled, unstable environments.
- Metabolically, body burns more calories when rest periods are short to minimize full recuperation.
- Overload principle – in order to create changes in the body an exercise stimulus must be applied at an intensity greater than the system is accustomed to receiving. Basically – you need to add weight and reps in order to progress. Smart programming provides the rest necessary to avoid OTS while maximizing the overload to achieve a client’s goals.
- Principle of variation pg. 182 – According to the general adaptation syndrome the body will adapt to an exercise stimulus after 8-12 weeks. An integrated program constantly adjusts acute variables. The goal is to challenge the kinetic chain with a wide variety of exercises and stimuli.
Rationale to Support Integrated Training pg. 182
- Skim over this section. Know that most of the population experiences low back pain and have high incidences of knee injuries due to their lifestyles(sitting all day at computers and not exercising). Therefore we need integrated training to address these issues.
Integrated Training and the OPT Model pg. 184
- Integrated training – Incorporating all forms of training in an integrated fashion as part of a progressive system. The forms of training include flexibility, cardiorespiratory, core, balance, plyometric, speed, agility, quickness, and resistance training.
- The OPT Model – A training model for a society that has structural imbalances and a high susceptibility to injury. It is programming that systematically progresses any client to any goal.
- Physiological benefits – Improves cardiorespiratory efficiency, enhance endocrine(hormone) and serum lipid(cholesterol) adaptations, increase metabolism, increase bone density
- Physical benefits – Decrease body fat, increase lean body mass, increase tissue tensile strength(tendons, ligaments, muscles)
- Performance benefits – Strength, power, endurance, flexibility, speed, agility, balance
Flexibility Improvement pg. 186
- Autogenic Inhibition – Process by which neural impulses that sense tension are greater than the impulses that cause muscles to contract, providing an inhibitory effect to the muscle spindles.
- It’s important that stretches are held for 20-60 seconds so enough tension is created to stimulate the autogenic inhibition reflex.
The Flexibility Continuum pg. 188
- Corrective flexibility – designed to increase joint ROM, improve muscle imbalances, and correct altered joint motion. Corrective flexibility includes self-myofascial release(foam roll) techniques and static stretching. Self-myofascial release uses the principle of autogenic inhibition to cause muscle relaxation, whereas static stretching can use either autogenic inhibition or reciprocal inhibition to increase muscle length depending on how the stretch is performed. Corrective flexibility is appropriate at the stabilization level (phase I) of the OPT model.
- Active-isolated stretching – allows an agonist and its synergist muscles to move a limb through a full range of motion while antagonists are being stretched. Basically stretching by moving a limb. An example is extending the knee to stretch the hamstrings while the quads are contracting. Really fancy language for a simple concept.
- Dynamic stretching – Again really fancy terms to mean performing exercises in order to stretch. Examples are bodyweight squats or walking lunges/duck walks. Only use dynamic stretches for those who have progressed to the higher levels of the OPT – so not for beginners.
Integrated Cardiorespiratory Training pg. 188
- Cardiorespiratory training programs that systematically progress clients through various stages to achieve optimal levels of physiological, physical, and performance adaptations by placing stress on the cardiorespiratory system. Personal trainers fail to take into effect the rate of progression, rate of progression critical to helping clients achieve personal health and fitness goals in most efficient and effective use of time and energy.
- Initial exercise prescription should reflect initial fitness level of client, fitness assessment results, and whether the client has any significant risk factors or health limitations to exercise. Warm-up, conditioning, cool-down.
Methods for prescribing exercise intensity pg. 189
- Peak VO2 Method. Traditional gold standard for measuring cardiorespiratory fitness. VO2 max. Maximal volume of oxygen per kilogram of body weight per minute. Maximal amount of oxygen that individual can use during intense exercise. Difficult to measure.
- Maximal Heart Rate (MHR) Method – Most used formula is 220-Age. Never use 220-Age to calculate max heart rate as absolute. New formula used is 208-(.7xAge). Be sure to remember the new formula, it will likely be tested.
- HR Reserve(HRR) Method – Karvonen method. Establishing training intensity based on difference between predicted maximal heart rate and resting heart rate. Most common and universally accepted method of establishing exercise training intensity. THR = [(HRmax – HRrest) x desired intensity] + HR rest If there’s a question about this on the test it will likely give this formula and ask you to name it. Try to memorize the formula if you can but if you can’t just remember what it looks like and remember it’s the heart rate reserve or Karvonen method.
- Ratings of perceived exertion method – Used to express or validate how hard a client feels he or she is working during exercise. (RPE) method person is subjectively rating perceived difficulty of exercise. 6 is no exertion at all, 20 is maximal exertion.
- Talk test method – Informal method used to gauge exercise training intensity.
- Ventilatory threshold – Point during graded exercise in which ventilation increases disproportionately to oxygen uptake, signifying a switch from predominantly aerobic energy production to anaerobic energy production.
Benefits of Interval Training and Zone Training pg. 191
- In zone training there are three zones. Zone 1 is 65-75% HR of heartrate max. The recovery or cardio base zone. Clients that stay in zone 1 will improve their VO2 max but will quickly plateau. Zone 2 is 76-85% of HRmax. From zone 2 you move into zone 3 which is 90% of HRmax. A client can stay in Zone 3 for 30-60 seconds then move to Zone 2 then 1 to recover. Training in zone 3 once a week is enough to obtain the benefits of intensity without overtraining.
- Interval training – Training that alternates between intense exertion and periods of rest or lighter exertion. I.e. Zone 3 for 60 seconds followed by zone 2 for 60 and zone 1 for 90 and repeating.
- Resting heartrate – Can be used to determine if a client is being overtrained. Take RHR for 5 days then average it. If client’s pulse when they arrive to training is 8 bpm higher than RHR it’s advised they take the day off.
Integrated Core Training pg. 193
- Core – Structures that make up lumbo-pelvic-hip complex(LPHC) including lumbar spine, pelvic girdle, abdomen, and hip joint.
- The draw-in maneuver – Draw the navel back toward the spine without spinal flexion. Like sucking your belly button in to put on a tight pair of pants. Helps activate inner unit of the core to create stability.
- Abdominal Bracing – Contracting the outer muscle units. It feels like you’re trying to squeeze everything out of your stomach, take a deep breath, hold, then push out. You should have clients use bracing when they’re lifting weights.
Integrated Balance Training pg. 195
- Proprioceptively enriched environments – Unstable yet controlled environments.
- Intramuscular coordination – The ability of the neuromuscular system to allow optimal levels of motor unit recruitment and synchronization.
- Balance training can be divided into two forms – static and dynamic.
- Sensorimotor control – Complex interaction involving the muscular system, the PNS, and CNS to obtain balance.
Integrated Reactive Training pg. 197
- Reactive training – Includes plyometrics. Exercises that use quick powerful movements. Box jumps, broad jumps, etc. Enhances neuromuscular efficiency and the rate of force production(i.e. Makes a person more powerful).
- Reactive training is composed of three phases – eccentric(loading) phase, amortization phase, and concentric(unloading phase). Reactive movements are produced through the stretch-shortening cycle called the integrated performance paradigm. Basically very fancy words to describe the three phases in a jump where you load the muscle, move from loading to contraction, then explode up and jump. What reactive training does is shorten the time between your loading and your contraction, or shortening the amortization period. The longer the delay in between eccentric and concentric the less power you generate.
- Reactive training enhances muscle spindle activity, desensitizes the Golgi tendon organ, and enhances neuromuscular efficiency.
Speed, Agility, and Quickness (SAQ) Training pg. 200
- Speed – Straight ahead pace of an individual. Stride rate is the number of strides taken in a given distance, and stride length is the distance covered with each stride. Higher stride rate equals lower stride length and vice versa.
- Agility – Requires high neuromuscular efficiency to maintain a center of gravity. Speed focuses on movement in one plane while agility focuses on multiplanar movement. Agility requires constant acceleration and deceleration.
- Quickness – Involves the ability to react without hesitation.
- In short SAQ training is beneficial for everyone, not only athletes, because it will help prevent slips, falls, and other injuries in daily life.
Integrated Resistance Training pg. 202
- Skim the next three pages. Just know that muscle fibers are encased in a membrane called sarcolemma and that myofibrils contain myofilaments which are the contractile components of muscle tissue. Actin and myosin form repeating sections within a myofibril. Very unlikely to be tested because knowing muscle contractile theory isn’t very practical for a personal trainer.
- Acetylcholine(ach) is the neurotransmitter used by the neuromuscular system.
- Strength pg. 206 – Ability of the muscles to provide internal tension and exert force against external resistance.
- Maximal strength – The most force a muscle can produce in a single voluntary effort.
- Hypertrophy – Enlargement of skeletal muscle fibers.
- Power – Ability to produce a large amount of force in a short amount of time. Deadlift is a strength movement while a clean is a power movement. Because the deadlift can be completed moving super slowly while a power-clean must be performed quickly in order to succeed.
Resistance Training Systems pg. 207
- Just read over the next pages. You will be tested on one of these at least but they’re super easy to understand and most of you will already have a good knowledge of what a multi set/pyramid set/superset is.
- Especially pay attention to peripheral heart action, they like to ask questions over that. Basically a variation of circuit training where you alternate between upper and lower body, for example squats then overhead press. The idea is it improves cardiovascular system along with strength/hypertrophy because you’re forcing blood to move from lower to upper.