- Calorie – A scientific unit of energy.
- Kilocalorie – A unit of energy equal to 1,000 calories. Amount of heat energy required to raise the temperature of a liter of water by 1 degree Celsius. When we say “one calorie” in relation to nutrition we’re actually talking about one kilocalorie.
- Macronutrients – Nutrients that provide calories. Carbs, fats, proteins.
Carbohydrates pg. 143
- Carbohydrates – Neutral compounds of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen(such as sugars, starches, and celluloses), which makes up a large portion of animal foods.
- Complex carbohydrate – A carbohydrate with more than 10 carbon/water units.
- Simple carbohydrate – Less than 10 carbon/water units.
- Sugars(simple), starches(complex), and fiber. Monosaccharide is single unit of sugar, many of which are connected to make starches. Monosaccharides include glucose, fructose, and galactose.
- Disaccharides(two sugar units) include sucrose(or common sugar), lactose(or milk sugar), and maltose.
- Polysaccharides are long chains of monosaccharide units linked together and found in foods that contain starch and fiber. Called complex carbohydrates and include starch found in plants, seed, and roots.
- Dietary fiber is part of plant that cannot be digested by human gut enzymes and passes through small intestine and colon.
Function of Carbohydrates pg. 143
- The body stores carbs in the liver and skeletal muscle as glycogen. IIRC between the liver and our skeletal muscle we store about 400g of glycogen in our body. This is not on the test but gives you an idea of how little the body actually stores.
- Liver glycogen helps maintain blood glucose – aka blood sugar. Blood glucose must be restored on a regular basis – the liver’s glycogen stores can be depleted overnight or during 90 minutes of endurance activity.
- When glycogen stores are depleted the liver will break down protein to maintain blood glucose. That’s why carbs are “protein sparing”.
- High fructose corn syrup – Just know that it’s made from cornstarch which is converted into fructose during food processing.
- General recommendation is 45-65% of calories to come from carbohydrates. Inactive individuals around 3g carbs/kg of body weight per day, athletes as much as 8-12g/kg of bodyweight per day. There is no set limit, work with your clients to find the optimal intake.
- Nutrient density – How many nutrients are in a calorie. For example a honeybun has lots of calories but not have many nutrients(vitamins/minerals/etc) so it is not a nutrient dense food. Generally fresh fruits, veggies, and meats are nutrient dense foods.
Protein pg. 145
- Protein – Amino acids linked by peptide bonds. Build and repair body tissues and structures. Involved in synthesis of hormones, enzymes, and other regulatory peptides.
Structure of Protein
- Made up of amino acids linked together by peptide bonds. Body uses approx 20 amino acids to build its many different proteins. Arranging amino acids in different sequences yields the body’s myriad of proteins.
- Two general classes of amino acids: essential and nonessential.
- Essential amino acids cannot be manufactured in the body – therefore must be obtained from food supply or some other exogenous source.
- Nonessential – body can manufacture them from dietary nitrogen and fragments of carbs and fat.
- Arginine and histidine are semi essential amino acids.
- Recommended protein intake is .8g/kg of bodyweight. 10-35% of an individual’s daily calories. 1.2-1.4g for endurance athletes and 1.6-1.7g/kg of bodyweight for strength training athletes.
- Complete Protein – Provides all of the essential amino acids. Meat products, eggs, dairy, and soy.
- Incomplete protein – Foods that do not provide all the essential amino acids – beans, legumes, grains, and vegetables.
- Complementary Proteins – Eating two sources of incomplete proteins to make a complete protein, for example eating rice and beans.
Fat pg. 148
- Lipids – Group of compounds that includes triglycerides(fats and oils), phospholipids, and sterols.
- Saturated or unsaturated. Unsaturated classified as monounsaturated or polyunsaturated.
- Polyunsaturated provide important essential fatty acids(fats that cannot be manufactured by the body but are essential for proper health and functioning).
- Omega 3 and Omega 6 – Omega 3 are anti-inflammatory while Omega 6 are proinflammatory. It’s important to maintain a balance of Omega 3 and Omega 6(since the book doesn’t give what the balance is, you likely won’t be tested on this).
- Lipids(or fats) are most concentrated source of energy in the diet. One gram of fat yields approximately 9 calories when oxidized.
Functions of Fat pg. 149
- Fats act as carriers for fat-soluble vitamins A, D, E, and K. Vitamin D aids in absorption of calcium. Fats are also important for conversion of carotene to vitamin A.
- Fats are involved in: cellular membrane structure and function, precursors to hormones, cellular signals, regulation and excretion of nutrients in cells, surrounding protecting and holding in place organs, insulating body from environmental temp changes, prolonging digestive process by slowing stomach’s secretion of HCL, longer lasting feeling of satiety, initiating release of hormone cholecystokinin(CCK) which contributes to satiety.
Recommended Fat Intake
- 20-35% of total calories from fat. The types of fat consumed rather than the total amount is an important influence on the risk of cardiovascular and other disease. Studies indicate that higher saturated fat intake is associated(note ASSOCIATED, not causative) of an increase in LDL cholsterol. LDL carries lipids throughout the body and can accumulate on artery walls which can then lead to risk of heart disease.
Vitamin and Minerals pg. 150
- Phytochemicals – Biologically active compounds found in plants. Cannot get via supplements.
- Glance over Table 5.7. They may throw 1-2 questions at you about what foods contain which vitamin but generally it will be a commonly known food such as vitamin D from milk, or Vitamin C from oranges.
- Study figure 5.7. You will get 1-2 questions from here as well. Know that B6 is involved in reactions of amino acid processing and aids in the breakdown of glycogen in muscles and the liver. That Folic acid is essential for the manufacture of genetic material, red blood cell formation, and cell division. That B12 is essential for DNA synthesis, helps form red blood cells, and maintains myelin sheath of nerves.
Alcohol pg. 153
- 7 calories per gram. That’s about all you need to know here.
Metabolism pg. 154
- Metabolism – All of chemical reactions that occur in the body to maintain itself. Metabolism is process in which nutrients are acquired, transported, used, and disposed of by the body.
- Adenosine Triphosphate – Energy storage and transfer unit within the cells of the body. When chemical bonds holding ATP are broken, energy is released for cellular work(such as muscle contraction), breaking the bond leaves behind molecule called adenosine diphosphate (ADP).
- Catabolism – Breaking down molecules for energy – think your body breaking down protein for glucose if your blood sugar runs low. Glycolysis is an example – breaking down glucose to a usable form of energy.
- Anabolism – Builds molecules. Think anabolic steroids – they are anabolic because they help build muscle molecules. Protein synthesis is an example of anabolism – aka building muscle.
Pathways to Energy pg. 155
- Three metabolic pathways cells can use to generate ATP – 1. ATP-PC system, 2. Aerobic metabolism(requires oxygen), 3. Anaerobic metabolism(requires no oxygen)
- ATP-PC System – Transfers phosphate group from another high energy molecule called phosphocreatine(PC or CP) to ADP molecule enough energy can be produced to facilitate one cross-bridge cycle. ATP and PC are called phosphagens. Creating new ATP from phosphocreatine molecule(ATP-PC system) is simplest and fastest way. Occurs without presence of oxygen(anaerobic). Only supplies energy for 10-15 secs before exhausted
Pathway to Energy: Carbohydrates and Glucose pg. 155
- Glucose is broken down through chemical processes and eventually becomes pyruvate. Oxygen is not required for these steps to take place. As glucose changes into pyruvate ATP is produced. If enough oxygen is available the pyruvate will become acetyl-CoA – once the pyruvate becomes acetyl-CoA it can start the Krebs cycle or the TCA cycle. The krebs cycle requires oxygen and produces lots of ATP. If there is not enough oxygen lactate is created from the pyruvate – provides some energy but not as much as Krebs cycle.
Pathway to Energy: Fats and Triglycerides pg. 156
- Fats are broken down in a pathway called beta-oxidation. Enzymes break up the carbon chains that make up fatty acids and converts them into acetyl-CoA(remember from the last pathway). This is then used to begin the Krebs cycle. Normal function of this system requires carbs. If carbs are low the body will produce ketone bodies which help use the fat for fuel.
Pathway to Energy: Protein and Amino Acids pg. 156
- The body doesn’t normally break down many amino acids for energy. First step is to remove nitrogen group, this is called deamination. Once the nitrogen is removed the carbon skeleton is what remains of the amino acids. The nitrogen is converted to urea and passed in urine. The carbon skeleton can enter the energy cycle at different points – depending on which amino acid it came from it can enter as pyruvate or acetyl-CoA or different places in the Krebs cycle.
Site of ATP Creation pg. 156
- Just know that not as much ATP can be created anaerobically as it can be aerobically. The NAD FAD electron transport chain is not tested and fairly useless knowledge.
Creation of Glucose pg. 157
- Glucose is created in a pathway called gluconeogenesis – it means making new glucose. When blood glucose is low the body breaks down other substances(like amino acids, lactate, glycerol, or pyruvate) to create glucose.
- Glucose is stored in the liver and skeletal muscle as glycogen. Know that glycogen stores are limited.
Fat Storage pg. 157
- Fats are stored in adipose tissue(aka fat). Small amounts are stored in muscles. Fats are produced by the pathway called lipogenesis. It starts with acetyl-CoA – anything that can form acetyl-CoA can be turned into and stored as fat to include fats, carbs, alcohol, and amino acids. Basically anything you eat can be turned into and stored as fat.
Creation of New Proteins pg. 157
- Proteins are generated through the process of protein synthesis. There is not a large store of proteins in the body. A small amount of amino acids, called the amino acid pool is stored in the blood and cells. While the body can break create some amino acids the bulk of your amino acids you require will come from food intake.
Water pg. 157
- Sedentary men and women should consume 3.7L and 2.7 of water per day.Water intake should be increased if individual is exercising briskly or residing in a hot climate.
- Benefits of consuming adequate water: endocrine gland function improves, fluid retention is alleviated, liver functions improve, natural thirst returns, metabolic functions improve, nutrients are distributed throughout body, body-temperature regulation improves, blood volume is maintained.
- Fluid loss of 2% of body weight will adversely affect circulatory functions and decrease performance levels. Thirst alone is poor indicator of how much water is needed.
- Athletes consistently consume inadequate fluid volume, managing to replace only 50% of sweat losses. Do not being practice session or endurance comp until body is at or slightly above standard weight.
- Drink 1.75 to 2.75 cups 2 hours before exercise. Drink 6 to 12 ounces of fluid every 15 to 20 minutes. Fluids should be cold because of more rapid gastric emptying.
- If exercise exceeds 60 mins use sports drink(containing up to 8% carbohydrate).
- When exercising for less than 60 minutes, water is experts’ choice for fluid replacement
- Ingest 16 to 24 ounces of fluid for every pound of body weight lost after an exercise bout, especially if rapid rehydration is necessary, as in twice-a-day training.
Electrolytes pg. 161
- Electrolytes include potassium, sodium, calcium, chloride, magnesium, and phosphate. Electrolytes are used for their electrical properties and to control fluid balance in the body. Sodium and potassium are the two most important electrolytes depleted in sweat. Hyponatremia(low sodium) and hypokalemia(low potassium) may result if they are not replenished.
- Electrolyte replacement is most important in proglonged physical activity(2+ hours). Most americans are less susceptible to electrolyte depletion from normal activities because they eat plenty of salt.
Which Diets Work? Pg. 162
- Just know from this section that losing weight requires a calorie deficit and that no matter what strategy a client chooses(low carb, balanced diet, or other approach) that studies have shown individuals will lose a similar amount of weight given a similar number of calories. Calorie deficit is the most important piece of the puzzle – not diet choice.
Environment of Eating pg. 164
- It’s important for clients to examine why they’re eating as much as what they eat. Social and emotional forces can trigger clients to eat. If a client is using food to meet emotions/stress then you should refer them to a psychologist or other mental health professional to help develop new coping mechanisms.
Strategies for Better Eating pg. 164
- People are not aware of how many calories they take in from sugary drinks. This is a good starting place. Replace sugary drinks and coffees with water or non-sugar versions.
- Eating larger portions of low calorie foods(like salads) is a useful strategy.
- Take a look at the recommendations given on page 165. Reading them once over will be plenty – they’re very common sense and likely won’t be tested.
Food Labels and Government Nutrition Guidelines pg. 166
- This is a section you can largely skim. Know the definitions of:
- DRI- Dietary Reference Intake – General term for a set of reference values used to plan and assess nutrient intakes of healthy individuals.
- RDA – Recommended Dietary Allowance – Estimated amount of a nutrient per day(like magnesium) considered necessary for good heatlh.
- AI – Adequate Intake – Estimated amount of a nutrient per day consumed by people assumed to be maintaining adequate nutrition.
- EAR – Estimated Average Requirement – Estimated amount of a nutrient per day at which the needs of 50% of the population will be met.
- UL – Tolerable Upper Intake Level – Highest level of a nutrient per day that is unlikely to pose a risk of adverse health effects.
- EER – Estimated Energy Requirement – General recommendation for calorie intake based on formulas that take into effect age, gender, height, weight, and level of physical activity.
What is a Dietary Supplement? Pg. 169
- Dietary Supplement – Substance that completes or makes an addition to daily dietary intake.
- Defined by DSHEA as containing one or more of following: vitamin, mineral, herb, other botanical, amino acid, dietary substance to supplement diet, concentrate, metabolite, constituent, or extract. Intended for ingestion in a tablet, capsule, powder, softgel, gelcap, or liquid form. Labeled as dietary supplement. Cannot be represented for use as a conventional food or as a sole item of a meal or diet. Cannot include an article that is approved as a drug or biologic.
- Remember that the FDA does not get involved in dietary supplements until after the product has been on the market. So if a dietary supplement is found to be dangerous the FDA will step in – unlike drugs where the FDA first needs to approve safety before allowing a drug to be put on the market.
Protein Supplements pg. 170
- Research supports that people who regularly exercise require more dietary protein than sedentary individuals. Take in 1.4g-2g/kg of bodyweight for active individuals.
- Whey and casein protein come from cow’s milk. Whey is a fast absorbing protein. Casein is a slow absorbing protein. Whey supplements contain all amino acids both essential and nonessential.
Branched-Chain Amino Acids pg. 171
- BCAAs – leucine, isoleucine, and valine are essential amino acids. They differ from other amino acids because they can be used for energy directly in the muscle without needing to go to the liver first. Studies have not proved out that BCAAs help reduce fatigue during exercise. Studies have supported the fact that BCAAs, especially leucine, may help speed recovery from exercise by preventing muscle breakdown.
Caffeine pg. 171
- Moderate to high caffeine intake(5-13g/kg of bodyweight) ingested 1 hour prior to exercise increases endurance exercise performance. Caffeine is ergogenic in some short-term high intensity exercise and sports. Pretty simple stuff most of us know all this info about caffeine already.
Creatine pg. 172
- Creatine is created in the body and consumed from meat and fish. It’s part of creatine phosphate a key component in the energy system for events lasting less than 10 seconds. Higher intake of creatine results in higher phosphocreatine in the muscles thus giving muscles more energy. Creatine supplementation results in 1-2% increased gains in strength when paired with appropriate training. Also studies show an acute gain in fat-free mass with creatine.
HMB pg. 173
- HMB is a product of the breakdown of leucine. Studies support the effectiveness of HMB in preventing exercise-related muscle damage in healthy trained and untrained individuals. Up to 3g/day of HMB taken for 2 weeks has been found to improve strength and fat free mass and reduce muscle damage. 3g seems to be the optimal dosage taken right before or after a workout.
Prohormones and Anabolic Steroids pg. 173
- Prohormones like Superdrol, Epistane, etc that you could purchase in 2005-2014 are now Class 3 narcotics.