Nervous System pg. 87
- Nervous system – One of the main organ systems of the body. Conglomeration of billions of cells specifically designed to provide a communication network within the human body. The CNS is composed of the brain and spinal cord. The peripheral nervous system(PNS) contains only nerves and connects the brain and spinal cord(the CNS) to the rest of the body.
- Sensory function – Ability of the nervous system to sense changes in either internal or external environment. One of three primary functions of the nervous system.
- Integrative function – Ability of nervous system to analyze and interpret sensory information to allow for proper decision making, producing an appropriate response.
- Motor function – Neuromuscular (nervous and muscular system) response to sensory information. I.e. causing muscle contraction when you touch a hot stove so that you jerk your hand back.
- The nervous system is responsible for the recruitment of muscles, learned patterns of movements, and the functioning of every organ in the human body. Pretty important!
- Proprioception – Cumulative sensory input to the central nervous system from all mechanoreceptors that sense body position and limb movement. When you run your feet give you proprioceptive feedback on the type of surface you’re running on. Training proprioception improves balance, coordination, and posture.
Afferent and Efferent Neurons and Interneurons pg. 87
- Neuron – Functional unit of the nervous system. Billions of neurons make up nervous system, provides it with ability to communicate internally with itself as well as externally with environment. Transmits impulses through both electrical and chemical signals. Forms the core of the nervous system which includes the brain, spinal cord, and peripheral ganglia.
- Neurons are composed of cell body, axon, and dendrites.
- The cell body of Neuron contains a nucleus, lysosomes, mitochondria, and a Golgi complex.
- Axon – cylindrical projection from the cell body that transmits nerve impulses to other neurons or effector sites(muscles, organs). Provides communication from brain and spinal cord to other parts of the body.
- Dendrites – gather information from other structures and transmit it back into the neuron.
- Sensory (afferent) neurons – Respond to touch, sound, light, and other stimuli and transmit nerve impulses from effector sites(muscles, organs) to the brain and spinal cord.
- Interneurons – Transmit nerve impulses from one neuron to another. Hence INTERneuron. Between neurons.
- Motor (efferent) neurons – transmit nerve impulses from the brain and spinal cord to the effector sites such as muscles or glands.
- So sensory neurons transmit from muscles and organs to the CNS. Motor neurons transmit nerve impulses from CNS to muscles and organs. Interneurons transmit impulses between neurons.
- Mechanoreceptors – specialized structures that respond to mechanical pressure within tissues and then transmit signals through sensory nerves. Respond to outside forces such as touch, pressure, stretching, sound waves, and motion. Senses distortions in body tissues.
- Muscle Spindles – Sensory receptors, run parallel to muscle fibers. Are sensitive to changes in muscle length and rate of length change. Help regulate the contraction of muscles via the stretch reflex mechanism. This mechanism is a normal response to the body to a stretch stimulus in the muscle, it is designed to protect and prevent overstretching and muscle damage.
- Gogli Tendon Organs(GTOs) – Specialized sensory receptors located where the skeletal muscle fibers attach to the tendons. Sensitive to changes in muscular tension and rate of tension change. Activating the Gogli tendon organ causes the muscle to relax which prevents the muscle from excessive stress or injury.
- Joint receptors – located around joint capsule, respond to pressure, acceleration, and deceleration of the joint. Signals extreme joint positions and thus helps prevent injury.
- Performance increases in early stages of training result from changes in the way the CNS controls and coordinates movement. Unsuccessful performances can be cross referenced with other sensory input and new movement strategies found. Regular training causes adaptations in the CNS, allowing greater control of movements, thus causing movements to be more smooth and more accurate – improving performance.
Muscle Fiber Types pg. 89
- Fiber types vary in chemical and mechanical properties. Two main types, type I and type II.
- Type I(slow twitch) contain large number of capillaries, mitochondria(transforms energy from food into ATP), myoglobin(increased delivery of oxygen). Red fibers
- Type II(fast-twitch) subdivided into Type IIa and Type IIx. Contain fewer capillaries, mitochondria, and myoglobin. White fibers.
- Type IIx have low oxidative capacity and fatigue quickly.
- Type IIa higher oxidative capacity and fatigue more slowly than IIx. IIa are known as intermediate fast-twitch fibers.
- Type I are smaller in diameter, slow to produce maximal tension, more resistant to fatigue. Produce long term contractions. Think marathons. Maintaining posture against gravity.
- Type II larger in size, quick to produce maximal tension, fatigue more quickly. Sprint muscles.
- All muscles have combination of slow and fast twitch. Ex. shin has 735 slow twitch type I whereas calf muscle has 49% slow twitch.
Muscles as Movers pg. 92
- Agonist muscles act as prime movers. They are most responsible for a particular movement.
- Synergist muscles assist prime movers. Synergist, think synergy. Assists with.
- Stabilizer support and stabilize the body.
- Antagonist muscles perform opposite action of prime mover.
Skeletal System pg. 93
- Skeletal System – Body’s framework, composed of bones and joints. Provides shape and focus for bodies. Produces blood for the body and stores minerals. Growth, maturation, and functionality of skeletal system are greatly affected by posture, physical activity, and nutrition.
- Bones – Provide a resting ground for muscles and protection of vital organs.
- Joints – Junctions of bones, muscles, and connective tissues at which movement occurs. Also known as articulation.
- The skeletal system is divided into two divisions.
- Axial Skeleton – Portion of skeletal system that consists of skull, rib cage, and vertebral column. Think torso and head. 80 bones.
- Appendicular Skeleton – Portion of skeletal system that includes the upper and lower extremities. Arms, legs. Think appendage, appendicular, arms, legs. 126 bones.
- 206 bones in the skeletal system, 177 used in voluntary movement, more than 300 joints in the body.
- Bones serve two vital functions – leverage and support.
- Remodeling – Process of resorption and formation of bone. Old bone is broken down and removed by osteoclasts, new bone is laid down by cells called osteoblasts.
- Remodeling follows lines of stress placed on bone. Exercise and habitual posture fundamentally influences the health of the skeletal system. Incorrect exercise and posture will lead to remodeling process that reinforces predominating bad posture.
Types of Bones pg. 96
- Five major types of bones. Shape, size, and proportion determine their classification.
- Long bones – long cylindrical body, irregular or widened ends. Shaped like a beam and have slight curvature. Predominantly composed of compact bone tissue for strength and stiffness. Has considerable amount of spongy tissue for shock absorption.
- Epiphysis – End of long bones, mainly composed of cancellous bone and house much of the red marrow involve din red blood cell production. One of primary sites for bone growth. End of long bones, red marrow which produces red blood cells. Knobby end looking parts of the bone.
- Diaphysis – Shaft portion of long bone. The shaft. Long part. Compact bone(strong).
- Epiphyseal Plate – Region of long bone connecting the diaphysis to the epiphysis. A layer of subdividing cartilaginous cells in which growth in length of the diaphysis occurs.
- Periosteum – Dense membrane composed of fibrous connective tissue that closely wraps (invests) all bone, except that of the articulating surfaces in joints, which are covered by a synovial membrane. Inner surface provides materials for nutrition repair and facilitates growth in the diameter of the bone.
- Medullary cavity – Central cavity of bone shafts where marrow is stored. Contains fatty yellow marrow, predominantly fat and serves as energy reserve, center of diaphysis.
- Articular (hyaline) cartilage – Covers the articular surfaces of bones. “articular surface” means the parts of the bone that moves in joints. Hard, white, shiny tissue that along with synovial fluid helps reduce friction in freely moving synovial joints. Fundamental to smooth joint action.
- Short bones – Similar in length and width. Somewhat cubical in shape. Consist predominantly of spongy bone tissue to maximize shock absorption. Carpals of hands and tarsals of feet.
- Flat bones – Thin bones, two layers of compact bone tissue surrounding a layer of spongy bone tissue. Involved in protection of internal structures and also provide broad attachment sites for muscles. Sternum, scapulae, ribs.
- Irregular bones – Unique shape and function. Vertebrae, pelvic bones, facial bones.
- Sesamoid Bones – Small bones embedded in a joint capsule or found in locations where tendon passes over a joint. Develop within particular tendons at a site of considerable friction or tension. Serve to improve leverage and protect the joint from damage.
Joints pg. 99
- Formed by one bone that articulates with another bone. Categorized by structure and function.
- Arthrokinematics – Joint motion. Rolled, slide, and spin. Motions rarely occur in isolation. Rolling movement – bicycle roll on street. Sliding – tire skidding on street. Spinning movement – twisting lid off a jar.
- Synovial joints – Held together by a joint capsule and ligaments and are most associated with movement in the body. 80% of all joints in the body, have greatest capacity for motion. Produce synovial fluid, resembles egg whites and works like engine oil.
- Non Synovial joints – do not have a joint cavity, connective tissue, or cartilage. Exhibit little to no movement, seen in skull, distal joint of tibia and fibula.
- Ligaments – Primary connective tissue that connects bones together and provides stability, input to the nervous system, guidance, and the limitation of improper joint movement. Fibrous connective tissues, bone to bone, provide static and dynamic stability as well as input to nervous system (proprioception). Made up of collagen. Ligaments have poor vascularity, blood flow, thus do not heal or repair well.
Interactions of the Kinetic Chain pg. 105
- Local stabilizers are muscles that attach directly to vertebrae. Consist primarily of slow twitch type I fibers with high density of muscle spindles. Work to limit excessive compressive, shear, and rotational forces between spinal segments.
- Primary muscles that make up local stabilization system include transverse abdominis, internal obliques, multifidus, pelvic floor musculature, and diaphragm. Increase intra-abdominal pressure(pressure within abdominal cavity) and generating tension in thoracolumbar fascia(connective tissue of low back), increasing spinal stiffness for improved intersegmental neuromuscular control.
Global Stabilization System pg. 105
- Muscles of global stabilization system attach from pelvis to the spine. These transfer loads between upper extremity and lower extremity, provide stability between pelvis and spine, and provide stabilization and eccentric control of the core during functional movements.
- Primary muscles that make up global stabilization system include quadratus lumborum, psoas major, external obliques, portions of the internal oblique, rectus abdominis, gluteus medius, and adductor complex.
Deep Longitudinal Subsystem pg. 105
- The book throws a bunch of latin names at you. Basically – they’re your legs. Read over the DLS, posterior oblique, anterior oblique, and lateral subsystems but for the test just understand the local and global stabilization systems.
- Reciprocal Inhibition – simultaneous relaxation of one muscle and the contraction of its antagonist to allow movement to take place. To perform elbow flexion during biceps curl, biceps brachii actively contracts while triceps brachii(antagonist) relaxes to allow the movement to occur.
- Length-Tension Relationship – Resting length of a muscle and the tension the muscle can produce at this resting length. Optimal muscle length is where actin and myosin filaments in the sarcomere have the greatest degree of overlap, this results in ability of myosin to make maximal amount of connections with actin and thus results in potential for maximal force production of that muscle. Lengthening a muscle beyond this optimal length and then stimulating it reduces the amount of actin and myosin overlap, reducing force production. Shortening muscle too much places actin and myosin in state of maximal overlap and allows for no further movement.
- Force-Couple Relationship – Muscle groups moving together to produce movement around a joint.
- Motor-Output – Response to stimuli that activates movement in organs or muscles. Basically, movement.
- Motor Behavior – response to internal and external environmental stimuli. The collective study of motor control, motor learning, and motor development. Again, basically movement.
Kinetic Chain Dysfunction pg. 112
- Poor posture and repetitive movements create dysfunction within the connective tissue of the body. This dysfunction is treated by body as another injury, and as a result, body will initiate repair process termed cumulative injury cycle.
- Any trauma to tissue of the body creates inflammation. Inflammation, in turn, activates body’s pain receptors and initiates protective mechanism, increasing muscle tension or causing muscle spasm. Heightened activity of muscle spindles in particular areas of muscle create a micro spasm, and as result of spasm, adhesions(or knots) being to form in the soft tissue. These adhesions form a weak, inelastic matrix(inability to stretch) that decreases normal elasticity of the soft tissue, resulting in altered length-tension relationships(leading to altered reciprocal inhibition), altered force-couple relationships, and arthrokinetic dysfunction(leading to altered joint motion). Left untreated adhesions can begin to form permanent structural changes in soft tissue that is evident in Davis’s law.
Contributors of Kinetic Chain Dysfunction pg. 113
- Pattern Overload – Consistently repeating same pattern of motion, which may place abnormal stresses on the body. Pattern overload is consistently repeating same pattern, such as baseball pitching, long-distance running, and cycling, with time places abnormal stresses on the body.
- Suboptimal positioning – Think of quarter squats. Yes the person is technically squatting but he is doing so suboptimally, and over time if he continues to perform the exercise with the improper form he will have a higher chance to develop stress related injuries.
- Repetitive Lack of Motion – Prime example is sitting. Too much sitting will cause shortening of hip flexors and abdominals and lengthening of posterior chain. Repetitive lack of motion has the chance to lead to repetitive stress injuries.
Scientific Concepts Related to Kinetic Chain Dysfunction pg. 115
- Altered reciprocal inhibition – Concept of muscle inhibition, caused by tight agonist, which inhibits its functional antagonist. Example tight psoas(hip flexor) would decrease neural drive of the gluteus maximus (hip extensor). Altered reciprocal inhibition alters force-couple relationships, produces synergistic dominance, and leads to the development of faulty movement patterns, poor neuromuscular control, and arthrokinetic (joint) dysfunction.
- Synergistic Dominance – Neuromuscular phenomenon that occurs when inappropriate muscles take over the function of a weak or inhibited prime mover. Example if psoas(hip flexor) is tight, leads to reciprocal inhibition of gluteus maximus, which in turn results in increased force output of synergists for hip extension (hamstring complex, adductor magnus) to compensate for weakened glutes. The result of synergistic dominance is faulty movement patterns, leading to arthrokinetic dysfunction and eventual injury(such as hamstring strains).
Areas of Kinetic Chain Dysfunction pg. 116
- There are five major checkpoints for identifying kinetic chain dysfunction. These are the: Foot and ankle. Knee. Lumbo-pelvic-hip complex. Shoulder girdle. Head(cervical spine).
- Foot and Ankle complex – Most common injuries are plantar fasciitis, achilles tendon, stress fractures in the tibia, and ankle sprains and ankle instability. When you’re performing movement assessments the major fault you’re looking for in the foot and ankle complex is pronation. It helps to watch YouTube videos to gain an idea of what pronation looks like. Reading about it is fairly useless.
- Knee complex – common site of injury for more than 50% of high school and college athletic injuries. Common knee injuries include: jumper’s knee, IT band syndrome, ACL, MCL, LCL injury, and meniscus tears.
- LPHC – Core of the human movement system. Local injuries: low back pain, sacroiliac joint dysfunction, hamstring, quad, and groin strains. Just know this – in almost every movement compensation addressed in the book, the probable underactive muscles include the gluteals of the LPHC.
- Shoulder complex – Common injuries: rotator cuff strains/tears, shoulder impingement, biceps strains, shoulder instability. Shoulder issues can lead up to the head(cervical spine) and travel down and lead to lower back pain. Many clients will have shortened pecs, anterior delts, and lats and you will need to work to stretch those muscles while lengthening the underactive muscles.
- Cervical Spine – Neck injuries are the fourth leading cause of disability. 30% of adults worldwide complain of neck pain. Pelvo-ocular reflex – neuromotor response of the pelvic girdle and lower extremity that serves to orient the body region in response to head position and visual cues. Basically as the head tilts the body tends to move with it.
The Cardiovascular System pg. 121
- Cardiorespiratory system – composed of cardiovascular and respiratory system.
- Cardiovascular system – Heart, blood, and blood vessels.
- Heart – Hollow, muscular organ that pumps a circulation of blood through the body by means of rhythmic contraction. Positioned in thoracic cavity, lying anteriorly(in front) to the spine and posteriorly(behind) the sternum.
- Mediastinum – Space in the chest between lungs that contains all internal organs of the chest except lungs. Adult heart size of fist weighs 300g.
- Cardiac muscle one of three major types, involuntary muscle, not consciously controlled.
- Cardiac muscles are shorter and more tightly connected than skeletal muscle. Have irregularly spaced dark bands called intercalated discs.
- Sinoatrial (SA) Node – Specialized area of cardiac tissue located in the right atrium of the heart which initiates electrical impulses that determine the pacemaker for the heart. Electrical signals are transmitted from the SA, through both atria and down into ventricles. Referred to as the pacemaker for the heart.
- Atrioventricular (AV) Node – Small mass of specialized cardiac muscle fibers, located in the wall of the right atrium of the heart, that receives heartbeat impulses from the sinoatrial node and directs them to the walls of the ventricles. AV node delays electrical impulse from SA before allowing it to move on to ventricles. Directs impulses to walls of ventricles.
- Heart composed of four hollow chambers, delineated into two interdependent but separate pumps on each side. Two pumps are separated by interatrial septum(separates atria) and interventricular septum(separates the ventricles).
- Each side of the heart has two chambers, an atrium and a ventricle.
- Right side of the heart is the pulmonic side because it receives blood from the body that is low in O2 and high in CO2 and pumps it to the lungs then back to the left atria.
- Left side of heart is systemic side, pumps blood high in O2 low in CO2 to rest of the body.
- Blood pumped from right side, pulmonic, to the lungs, then through left side, systemic to the rest of the body. Right to left.
- Atria – Superior(upper) chamber of the heart that receives blood from veins and forces it into ventricles. On either side of heart. Gather blood returning to heart. Right atrium gathers deoxygenated blood, left atrium gathers oxygenated blood from lungs.
- Ventricles – Inferior(lower) chamber of the heart receives blood from its corresponding atrium and forces blood into arteries. Larger than atria. Right ventricle has thin walls and pumps under low pressure. Left ventricle has thicker walls and pumps under high pressure b/c it pumps blood out to the rest of the body. Right ventricle receives deoxygenated blood from right atrium, left ventricle receives oxygenated blood from left atrium.
- Each chamber of heart is separated from one another and major veins and arteries by valves to prevent backflow or spillage of blood.
Functions of the Heart pg. 124
- Stroke Volume – Amount of blood pumped out of the heart with each contraction. Difference between ventricular end-diastolic volume(EDV) and end-systolic volume(ESV). EDV is filled volume of ventricle before contraction, ESV is residual volume of blood remaining in ventricle after contraction. Typical EDV 120mL and ESV 50mL. Difference, 70mL represents SV. D comes before S EDV is BEFORE contraction, and ESV come AFTER contraction.
- Heart Rate – Rate at which heart pumps.
- Cardiac output (Q) – Heart rate x stroke volume, overall performance of heart.
- Blood – Fluid circulates in the heart, arteries, capillaries, and veins, carries nutrients and oxygen to all parts of the body and also rids body of waste products. Blood consists of cells suspended in watery liquid called plasma, which also contains nutrients such as glucose, hormones, and clotting agents.
- Red, white, and platelets in blood cells.
- Plasma makes up 55% of volume of blood and 45% are red, white, platelets. 4-6L of blood in adult.
- Blood vessels – network of hollow tubes that circulates blood throughout body. Transported to and from heart.
- Arteries – Blood vessels that transport blood away from heart.
- Capillaries – Smallest blood vessels, site of exchange of chemicals and water between blood and tissue.
- Veins – Vessels that transport blood from capillaries toward the heart.
- Largest artery in the body is the aorta, carries blood away from the heart.
- Arterioles – small terminal branches of an artery which end in capillaries.
- Venules – Very small veins that connect capillaries to the larger veins.
The Respiratory System
- Respiratory System – Lungs and respiratory passageways that collect oxygen from external environment and transports it to bloodstream.
- Breathing is the process of moving air in and out of the body and requires optimal functioning of the respiratory pump and all its components.
- Respiratory Pump – Bones and soft tissue that work together to allow proper respiratory mechanics to occur and help pump blood back to heart during inspiration.
- Inspiration – Inhalation, actively contracting the inspiratory muscles to move air into body. Actively contracting.
- Expiration – Exhalation, process of actively or passively releasing inspiratory muscles to move air out of the body.
Respiratory Airways pg. 129
- Respiratory passages are divided into conducting airways and respiratory airways.
- Conducting airways consists of all structures that air travels through before entering respiratory airways. Nasal, oral cavities, mouth, pharynx, larynx, trachea, basically your nose and throat before lungs.
- Diffusion – process of getting oxygen from environment to tissues of the body.
Cardiorespiratory System Function pg. 130
- Cardiovascular and respiratory systems work together to transport oxygen to body tissues. Capacity to efficiently use oxygen is dependent on respiratory system’s ability to collect oxygen and the cardiovascular system’s ability to absorb and transport it.
- Use of oxygen by the body’s oxygen uptake.
- Resting oxygen consumption (VO2) is approximately 3.5 mL of oxygen per KG of bodyweight per minute, typically named 1 metabolic equivalent or 1 MET.
- Fick equation – equation for oxygen consumption.
- Maximal Oxygen Consumption (VO2max) – Highest rate of oxygen transport and utilization achieved at maximal physical exertion. Best measure of cardiorespiratory fitness. Anywhere from 11 to 23 METs.
Abnormal Breathing Patterns pg. 131
- Breathing pattern becomes more shallow, uses secondary respiratory muscles more than diaphragm. Upper chest breathing becomes habitual causing overuse in secondary respiratory muscles such as scalenes, sternocleidomastoid, levator scapulae, and upper trapezius.
- Respiratory muscles also play major postural role in human movement system, all connecting directly to cervical and cranial portions of the body. Increased activity and excessive tension may result in headaches, lightheadedness, and dizziness.
- Excessive breathing(short, shallow) can lead to altered CO2 and Oxygen blood content and can lead to feelings of anxiety.
- Inadequate oxygen and retention of metabolic waste within muscles can create fatigue, stiff muscles.
- Inadequate joint motion of the spine and rib cage, as a result of improper breathing, causes joints to become restricted and stiff.
Endocrine System pg. 131
- System of glands that secrete hormones into bloodstream to regulate variety of bodily functions. Mood, growth, development, tissue function, and metabolism.
Endocrine Glands pg. 133
- Primary endocrine glands are hypothalamus, pituitary, thyroid, and adrenal glands.
- Pituitary, “master” gland. Controls functions of other endocrine glands.
- Thyroid produces hormones that regulate metabolism and affect growth.
- Catecholamines – two, epinephrine(adrenaline) and norepinephrine. Produced by adrenal glands(on top of each kidney). Help prepare body for activity. Fight or flight. Hypothalamus triggers adrenals to secrete epinephrine for fight.
- Epinephrine – increases heart rate and stroke volume, elevates blood glucose levels, redistributes blood to working tissues, opens up airways.
- Testosterone – produced in testes in males, ovaries and adrenal glands in females. Males produce up to 10x more. Fundamental role in growth and repair of tissue. Estrogen produced in ovaries in female and small amounts in adrenals in males.
- Adrenal glands secrete hormones – corticosteroids, catecholamines, cortisol, adrenaline in response to stress.
- Hormonal activity control rests with hypothalamus and pituitary gland.
- Cortisol – Catabolic hormone. Secreted by adrenals, serves to maintain high energy supply. Chronic cortisol can lead to significant breakdown of muscle tissue.
- Growth Hormone – Released from pituitary, regulated by hypothalamus. Stimulated by several factors: estrogen, testosterone, deep sleep, vigorous exercise. Primary anabolic hormone responsible for most of growth and development during childhood until puberty when primary sex hormones take over. Increases development of bone, muscle tissue, and protein synthesis. Increases fat burning and strengthens immune system.
- Thyroid gland located at base of the neck below thyroid cartilage(adam’s apple). Releases hormones responsible for metabolism regulation.
- Testosterone and growth hormone levels increase after strength training and moderate to vigorous aerobic exercise.
- Prolonged bouts of endurance training or extremely intense training lowers testosterone levels while raising cortisol levels.
Digestive System pg. 135
- Just have a general understanding of what constitutes the digestive system. It helps to picture eating an apple and picture where that apple goes. Starts in the mouth where saliva glands assist with the chemical breakdown of food, moves through the pharynx and esophagus, then the stomach where the food starts to be broken down down, the small intestines(the longest section 7-13 ft long) where most of digestion takes place, large intestines whose ultimate role is to dry out leftover food before eliminating it.