Chapter 13 Resistance Training Concepts:
- General Adaptation Syndrome
- Table 13.1 Adaptive benefits of resistance training
- Table 13.2 The general adaptation syndrome
- SAID Principle
- Adaptations for resistance training
- Table 13.3 Resistance training systems
- Table 13.4 Peripheral heart action system
On the exam, some questions may ask about how to properly progress body position during an exercise. You need to be able to progress (make more difficult), or regress (make easier) a client’s body position. Below, progressions are listed from easy to difficult and you can see that two-legs on a stable surface (the floor) is easier than standing on one leg (single-leg), on the floor. With the arms, start a client with two arms, before progressing on to an alternating arm, and then to a single arm exercise. For example:
What would be the immediate progression of a “Single-Leg Dumbbell Curl”?
a. single-leg, alternating arm, stable
b. single-leg, single-arm, stable
c. two-leg, alternating arm, unstable
d. two-leg, single-arm, unstable
General Adaptation Syndrome
- Optimal state of human movement system is one of physiologic balance or homeostasis.
- General Adaptation Syndrome – Used to describe how the body responds and adapts to stress. For adaptations to occur, the body must be confronted with a stressor of some form that creates the need for a response.
- Three stages of response to stress: alarm reaction, resistance development, exhaustion
Alarm Reaction Stage
- Alarm Reaction – The initial reaction to a stressor. Activates a number of physiological and psychological protective processes within the body. During initial sessions of resistance training programs, body is forced to try and adapt to increased amounts of force on bones, joints, muscles, connective tissues, and nervous system.
- During alarm stage numerous physiologic responses occur, including increase in oxygen and blood supply as well as neural recruitment to the working muscles.
- Over time applying principle of progressive overload, body increases its ability to meet demands being placed on it.
- Delayed onset muscle soreness – Pain or discomfort often felt 24 to 72 hours after intense exercise or unaccustomed physical activity.
Resistance Development Stage
- Resistance Development – Body increases its functional capacity to adapt to the stressor. Human movement system will increase its capabilities to efficiently recruit muscle fibers and distribute oxygen and blood to proper areas of the body. Once adaptation has occurred, body will require increased stress or overload to produce a new response and a higher level of fitness.
- Personal trainers understand this adaptation response but use it improperly by only manipulating the amount of weight the client usees when this is one of many ways to increase stress on teh body.
- Prolonged stress or intolerable amounts of stress can lead to exhaustion or distress.
- Exhaustion – prolonged stress or stress that is intolerable and will produce exhaustion or distress to the system.
- When stressor is too much for any one of the physiologic systems to handle, it causes a breakdown or injury such as: Stress fractures, muscle strains, joint pain, emotional fatigue.
- Avoiding pitfalls of exhaustion stage is one of main reasons for using OPT model.
- Periodization – Division of a training program into smaller, progressive stages.
- If resistance is continually increased with intention of stressing specific muscles or muscle groups to produce increase in size and strength, it can lead to injury of the muscle, joint, or connective tissue, especially if resistance is added too quickly or inadequate rest and recovery periods are not planned for.
Principle of Specificity: The SAID Principle
- Principle of Specificity or Specific Adaptation to Imposed Demands(SAID principle) – Principle that states the body will adapt to the specific demands that are placed on it. If someone repeatedly lifts heavy weights, that person will produce higher levels of maximal strength. Conversly if a person repeatedly lifts lighter weights for many reps, that person will develop higher levels of muscular endurance.
- Training programs should reflect desired outcomes.
- Type I slow twitch fibers are smaller in diameter, slower to produce maximal tension, and more resistant to fatigue.
- Type II are larger, fast twitch, quick to produce maximal tension, fatigue more quickly than type I.
- Degree of adaptation that occurs during training is directly related to the mechanical, neuromuscular, and metabolic specificity of the training program. To effectively achieve program goals for clients, trainers need to consistently evaluate the need to manipulate the exercise routine to meet actual training goals. The body can only adapt if it has a reason to adapt.
- Mechanical Specificity – The weight and movements placed on the body. To develop muscular endurance of legs requires light weights and high repetitions when performing leg-related exercises. To develop maximal strength in the chest, heavy weights must e used during chest-related exercises.
- Neuromuscular Specificity – Refers to the speed of contraction and exercise selection. To develop higher levels of stability while pushing, chest exercises will need to be performed with controlled, unstable exercises, at slower speeds. To develop strength, exercises should be performed in more stable environments with heavier loads to place more of an emphasis on the prime movers. To develop higher levels of power, low-weight high-velocity contractions must be performed in a plyometric manner.
- Metabolic Specificity – Refers to the energy demand placed on the body. To develop endurance, training will require prolonged bouts of exercise, with minimal rest between sets. Endurance training primarily uses aerobic pathways to supply energy to the body. To develop maximal strength or power, training will require longer rest periods, so the intensity of each bout of exercise remains high. Energy will be supplied primarily via anaerobic pathways.
- Trainers should remember that a client’s training program should be designed to meet the specific demands of their daily life and health and wellness goals.
- Mechanically body burns more calories when movements are performed while standing versus seated or lying position.
- From neuromuscular standpoint, body burns more calories when more muscles are being used for longer periods in controlled, unstable environments.
- Metabolically, body burns more calories when rest periods are short to minimize full recuperation.
Progressive Adaptations from Resistance Training
- Stabilization is the human movement system’s ability to provide optimal dynamic joint support to maintain correct posture during all movements. Getting right muscles to fire, with right amount of force, in the proper plane of motion, at the right time.
- If training is not performed with controlled unstable exercises, clients will not gain the same level of stability and may even worsen.
- Muscular Endurance – The ability to produce and maintain force production for prolonged periods of time. Improving muscular endurance is integral component of all fitness programs.
- Research has shown that resistance training protocols using high reps are the most effective way to improve muscular endurance as well and after an initial training effect in previously untrained individuals, multiple sets of periodized training may prove superior to single-set training for improving muscular endurance.
- Muscular Hypertrophy – Enlargement of skeletal muscle fibers in response to overcoming force from high volumes of tension. Seen in resistance training. Visible signs of hypertrophy may not be apparent for many weeks(4-8 weeks), in an untrained client, process begins in the early stages of training, regardless of the intensity of training used.
- Resistance training protocols that use low to intermediate rep ranges with progressive overload lead to muscular hypertrophy. Structured progressive training programs use multiple sets to help increase musculoskeletal hypertrophy in both younger and older men and women alike. Progressive resistance training programs using moderate to low rep protocols with progressively higher loads will result in increased hypertrophy in older adults and men and women.
- Strength – ability of neuromuscular system to produce inteneral tension to overcome an external load. Degree of internal tension produced is the result of strength adaptations.
- Resistance training programs have traditionally focused on developing maximal strength in individual muscles, emphasizing one plane of motion, mainly sagittal. Because all muscles function eccentrially, isometrically, and concentrially on all three planes of motion at different speeds, training programs should be designed using a progressive approach that emphasizes the appropriate exercise selection, all muscle actions, and repetition tempos.
- Because muscle operates under the control of the CNS, strength needs to be thought of not as a function of muscle, but as a result of activating the neuromuscular system. Strength gains can occur rapidly in beginning clients and can increase with structured, progressive resistance training program.
- One factor in increased strength is an increase in number of motor units recruited, especially early in the training program.
- Strength is built on foundation of stabilization requiring muscles, tendons, and ligaments to be prepared for the load that will be required to increase strength beyond initial stages of training.
- Power – Ability of neuromuscular system to produce the greatest force in the shortest time. Force multiplied by velocity. Power adaptations build on stabilization and strength adaptations and then apply them at more realistic speeds and forces seen in everyday life and sporting activities.
- Increase in either force or velocity will produce increase in power. Training for power can be achieved by increasing weight(force) or increasing the speed at which weight is moved(velocity).
Resistance Training Systems
- Originally power lifters, olympic lifters, and bodybuilders designed most resistance training programs. Research shows following systematic, integrated training program and manipulating key training variables achieve optimal gains in strength, neuromuscular efficiency, hypertrophy, and performance.
- Uses 1 set per exercise. Usually recommended that single-set workouts be performed two times a week to promote sufficient development and maintenance of muscle mass.
- When reviewing physiology of how human movement system operates, notion that single set is not enough may not be true.
- Helps avoid synergistic dominance
- Consists of performing multiple numbers of sets of exercise. Appropriate for both novice and advanced clients. Superior to single set training for advanced clients.
- Progressive or regressive step approach that either increases weight with each set or decreases weight with each set. In light-to-heavy system, individual typically performs 10 to 12 reps with light load and increases resistance for each following set, until individual can perform 1 to 2 reps, usually in 4 to 6 sets. Easily be used for workouts that involve only 2 to 4 sets or higher rep schemes(12 to 20 reps). Heavy to light system works in opposite direction.
- Two exercises, performed in rapid succession. Multiple variations of superset systems.
- First variation includes performing two exercises for same muscle group back to back. Example bench press immediately followed by push-ups.
- Other variation involves two exercises back to back that involve antagonist muscle groups.
- Involves 8-12 reps with no rest between sets or exercises.
- Allows client to continue a set past point at which it usually terminates. Performing set to failure, removing small percentage of load(5-20%), continuing with the set, completing a small number of reps(2-4), repeated several times(2-3 drops per set).
- Series of exercises that an individual performs one after the other, minimal rest between each exercise. Low to moderate number of sets, moderate to high reps(8-20), short rest periods(15-60 secs).
Peripheral Heart Action System
- Another variation of circuit training that alternates upper body and lower body exercises throughout the circuit. Distributes blood flow between upper and lower extremities potentially improving circulation. Number of exercises per sequence varies with program’s goal. This system is very beneficial for incorporating an integrated, multidimensional program and for altering body composition.
- Breaking body up into parts to be trained on separate days. Bodybuilders use mass dominant and strength athletes use split routine system. Numerous exercises on same day for same body part to bring optimal muscular hypertrophy.
Vertical Loading and Horizontal Loading
- Vertical Loading – Alternating body parts trained from set to set, starting from upper extremity and moving to the lower extremity.
- Goes from total body exercise, chest, back, shoulders, biceps, triceps, legs
- In vertically loaded workout client performs total body workout, then to chest, then to back, and so forth until all exercises have been completed. Client then start back at full body.
- Can be very beneficial in allowing for maximal recovery of each body part while minimizing amount of time wasted on rest.
- Horizontal loading – Performing all sets of exercise or body part before moving on to next exercise or body part. Appropriate for maximal strength and power training. Drawback is the amount of time typically spent resting.