There are no specific study tips for chapter 15, but be sure to be familiar with the different modalities such as:
- Free weights
- Bands and rubber tubbing
- Cable Machines
- Medicine Ball
- Body weight training
- TRX suspension training
You will not see very much on the exam for this chapter but it will help you with categorizing exercise for resistance, core, and reactive training.
Strength Training Machines
- Safer option than free weights. Machine of choice for those who lack stability. Can change the load quickly.
- Inferior to free weights for improving core stability and neuromuscular efficiency(proper movement patterns). Can limit effectiveness of exercise and create more stress on joints because not all machines are created to accomodate all body types.
- Trainers should strive to progress individuals into more proprioceptively enriched environment while emphasizing multiple planes of motion.
- Perform exercises with full range of motion. Enhance motor learning and improve overall neuromuscular efficiency and performance. More easily progressed. Allow individuals to perform multijoint exercises(complex movements). Complex movements require more energy and enables individuals to expend more calories in a short period.
- Free weights can offer many benefits such as improving postual stability, strength, and muscle size and power, they can be potentially dangerous for novice exercises until proper technique is mastered.
- Offers similar freedom of movement but does not require a spotter. Each cable exercise must match muscle’s natural line of pull. For example when performing biceps curl(elbow flexion), cable should be positioned to offer resistance in a vertical motion against elbow flexion.
- Can be effectively used in all phases(phase 1-5)
- Excellent option to challenge the core while having individuals perform exercises in standing position versus seated.
Elastic Resistance (Rubber Tubing and Bands)
- Inexpensive alternative to training with resistance. Various forms can help improve proprioceptive demands, muscular endurance, and joint stabilization. Not ideal for improving maximal strength, but it has been shown to be very beneficial to helping improve muscular strength and endurance for fitness and rehab purposes.
- Helps clients move in multiple planes of motion and oftentimes achieve a greater range of motion (ROM) during training.
- Tension is not consistent with elastic bands.
- Can be used with variety of populations as part of program to increase muscular strength, endurance, and power.
- Ability to develop explosive power is one of the unique benefits of medicine balls because velocity of movement is critical to developing power.
- Benefits – Enhanced athleticism, coordination, and balance. Increased mental focus and physical stamina, increased oxygen uptake, increased total body conditioning. Recruitment of posterior chain. Increased core stability and muscular endurance. Increased strength and power. Increased grip strength. Increased metabolic demands and caloric expenditure.
- Kettlebell Program Design Strategies – Skilled lifts, must hone skills first. Emphasis on posterior chain, working from ground up, and keeping perfect form is top priority. Quality should come before quantity.
- Five checkpoints – feet shoulder width apart pointed straight ahead, knees in line with second and third toes, hips level with lumbar spine and in neutral position, shoulders depressed and slightly retracted to activate scapulae, head cervical spine in neutral position(chin tuck)
Body Weight Training
- Can learn how to train in all planes of motion and acquire greater kinesthetic awraeness.
- Suspension bodyweight training – increased muscle activation, low compressive loads to spine, increased performance, potential increase in caloric expenditure, improvements in cardiovascular fitness
- Ideal for phases 1 and 2 of OPT model.
Introduction to Priopceptive Modalities
- Swiss balls, allows increase in strength and stability of the core musculature when substituted for more stable surfaces such as exercise benches, chairs, and the floor.
- The unstable base of support forces user to constantly adjust body position to subtle movements of the ball.
- Can be dangerous if one does not possess good balance or control.
- Stands for both sides up.
- Ability to increase intensity of an exercise by decreasing the stability. Increases neuromuscular activity when compared with standing on a stable surface.