Chapter 18 Supplementation:
- Table 18.2 Dietary reference intake terminology
- Units of measure used on dietary supplement labels
- Adverse effects of excess for specific vitamins & minerals
- Be familiar with the ergogenic aids and dosage
What are supplements
- Dietary Supplement – Substance that completes or makes an addition to daily dietary intake.
- Defined by DSHEA as containing one or more of following: vitamin, mineral, herb, other botanical, amino acid, dietary substance to supplement diet, concentrate, metabolite, constitutent, or extract. Intended for ingestion in a tablet, capsule, powder, softgel, gelcap, or liquid form. Labeled as dietary supplement. Cannot be repesented for use as a conventional food or as a sole item of a meal or diet. Cannot include an article that is approved as a drug or biologic.
Labels of Dietary Supplements
- Proteins, carbs, fats expressed in grams
- Vitamins, minerals, amino acids are expressed in milligram(mg) or microgram(mcg or ug)
- IUs are international units.
Vitamin and Mineral Supplements
- Vitamin A – high intake of retinol but not Beta carotene is associated with increased incidence of hip fracture in older women. Excess intake of retinol at conception and during early stages of pregnancy increases risk of birth defects.
- Increase in risk of lung cancer in smokers taking 20 to 30mg of beta crotene.
- Calcium should be at low levels or absent. Excess calcium consumed with other minerals can decrease absorption of some important trace minerals.
- B vitamins, niacin, folic acid.
- Deficiency of vitamins and minerals can cause mental and emotional problems. Iron deficiency has been shown to affect both physical and mental function adversely.
- Vitamin B12 deficiency, most commonly seen in elderly and those who avoid consuming animal foods. Mental and emotional changes caused by vitamin B12 deficiency are often mistaken for Altzheimers and dementia. Condition can be reversed if corrected early in deficiency state. If not, nerve damage and dementia symptoms can be irreversible. High dose oral supplementation, 200 to 2000 ug per day may be as effective as injections.
- Ergogenic means work generating. Something that enhances athletic performance.
- Creatine – synthesized naturally in human body from amino acids methionine, glycine, and arginine. In resting skeletal muscle, about two thirds of creatine exists in a phosphorylated form that can rapidly regenerate ATP to maintain high-intensity muscular efforts for up to about 10 seconds.
- When creatine supplementation is combined with strength-training program, it has been shown to increase muscle mass, strength, and anaerobic performance. Typical dose begins with 5 to 7 days at 20g per day then followed by 2 to 5g a day to sustain maximal muscle creatine levels.
- Consuming creatine with carbs can enhance muscle uptake of creatine and potentially increase muscle levels above that achieved without concurrent carb consumption.
- Creatine plays an essential role in normal brain function.
- Caffeine – most widely used drug in the world. Acts as stimulant, primarily affects central nervous system, heart, and skeletal muscles.
- Ergogenic effects from caffeine, especially when tested on well-trained athletes performing endurance exercises(more than one hour) or high intensity short-duration exercise lasting about 5 minutes. Does not appear to be ergogenic effect on sprint type efforts lasting 90 seconds or less.
- Most effective ergogenic response observed when dose of caffeine is 3 to 6 mg per kg body weight, ingested 1 hour before exercise. For 155lb person this is 210 to 420mg of caffeine.