- Figure 19.1 Stages of Change Model
- Know the stages of Change
- Be familiar with the initial session
- Effective Communication skills
- Goal setting- SMART Goals
- Cognitive Strategies
- Positive Self talk
- Exercise Imagery
States of Change
Stage 1: Precontemplation
- No intention of changing. Do not exercise and do not intend to start within 6 months. Education is best strategy with precontemplators.
Stage 2: Contemplation
- Thinking about becoming more active in next 6 months. Listen to what contemplators need and support them any way that they can. Contemplators still need information.
Stage 3: Preparation
- Exercise occasionally but are planning to begin exercising regularly next month. May have unrealistic expectations for the change they hope to achieve, oftentimes leads to high risk of disappointment and early dropout.
- Help clients clarify realistic goals and expectations, help clients maintain their beliefs in the importance of exercise, discuss programs that work best for different clients, consider clients’ schedules, ask about previous successful experiences with exercise, avoid exercise that could lead to discomfort or injury, discuss building social support network.
Stage 4: Action
- Started exercise, but not yet maintained behavior for 6 months. Continue to provide them with education. Work with their clients to develop steps for overcoming any barriers or disruptions.
Stage 5: Maintenance
- Maintained change for 6 months or more. Still tempted to return to old habits.
The Initial Session
- 20 seconds to make a good first impression. Body language. Initial session building relationship.
- Discuss health concerns.
- Clarify fitness goals. Verbalize goals. Set SMART goals, specific, measurable, attainable, realistic, and timely.
- Reviewing previous exercise experiences
- Finalizing program design. Have good sense of health concerns, fitness goals, and past positive and negative experiences.
- Help clients anticipate the process.
Importance of Effective Communication Skills
- Difference between success and failure in relationship between trainer and his or her client.
- Nonverbal and verbal communication – posture, body language, verbal must be clear to be understood correctly.
- Active listening – genuine interest in client’s perspective and getting to know them. Pay attention, avoid distractions, look the speaker in the eye.
- Asking questions – ask open not close ended questions.
- Reflecting – Express the purported meaning of what you just heard. Make sure client is accurately understood.
- Summarizing – Draws all important points of conversation together and again allow clients to clarify either what they have said or how someone has interpreted what they have said.
- Affirmations show appreciation for clients and their strengths. Listen carefully to know what to affirm. Validate positive comments about their thoughts, plans, skills.
- Asking permission – ask permission to share information.
- Specific – clearly defined in such a way anyone could understand what the intended outcome is. Detailed description of what is to be accomplished.
- Measureable – Quantifiable. Establish a way to access the progress toward each goal. If goal cannot be measured a client cannot manage it.
- Attainable – Right mix of goals that are challenging, but not extreme.
- Realistic – Repesent objective toward which an individual is both willing and able to work.
- Timely – Always have a specific date of completion. Realistic but not too distant in the future.
- Positive self-talk – Help clients become aware of their negative thought process. Help clients come up with list of positive thoughts they might use with regard to exercise. Train clients to notice negative thoughts, stop negative thoughts, and translate those into something positive.
- Exercise imagery – process created to produce internalized experiences to support or enhance exercise participation. Clients can imagine themselves approaching their activity with greater confidence. Visualize performing with greater relaxation and muscle control. Rehearse positive outcomes.